Toxicology Litigation Support
Perchloroethylene, Trichlorothylene and other Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Dr. Parent has participated in a number of cases for both plaintiff and defense involving PERC, TCE, vinyl chloride, and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater, drinking water, and in the air. When perchloroethylene is released into the environment, it is degraded to trichloroethylene and a number of other chlorinated hydrocarbons, including vinyl chloride. The latter is a known human carcinogen and has been used also as a propellant in hair sprays. Some of the other chlorinated hydrocarbons also have been implicated as carcinogens based on animal studies and have been shown to initiate autoimmune responses in man including scleroderma and other illnesses. Where appropriate, causal links to specific illnesses consistent with the exposures have been made to PERC, TCE, vinyl chloride, and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. Our database on PERC, TCE, vinyl chloride, and other hydrocarbons is extensive. Selected references are provided below.
Abbas, R. and Fisher, J. W., A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for trichloroethylene and its metabolites, chloral hydrate, trichloroacetate, dichloroacetate, trichloroethanol and trichloroethanol glucuronide in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacol., 147, 15-30 (1997).
Abedin, Z., Cook, Jr., R. C. and Milberg, R. M., Cardiac toxicity of perchloroethylene (a dry cleaning agent). Southern Medical Journal, 73(8), 1081-1083 (1980).
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Altmann, L. et al., Neurobehavioral and neuropsychological outcomes of acute repeated perchloroethylene exposure. Applied Psychol., 41(3), 269-279 (1992).
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of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease
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Aschengrau, A., Ozonoff, D., Paulu, C., Coogan, P., Vezina, R., Heeren, T. and Zhang, Y., Cancer risk and tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Massachusetts. Arch. Environ. Health, 48(5), 284-292 (1993).
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Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Toxicological profile for trichloroethylene (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 335 pages, September (1997).
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Cohn, P., Klotz, J., Bove, F., Berkowitz, M. and Fagliano, J., Drinking water contamination and the incidence of leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 102(6-7), 556-561 (1994).
Cohn, P. D., Fagliano, J. A. and Klotz, J. B., Assessing human health effects from chemical contaminants in drinking water. New Jersey Medicine, 91(10), 719-722 (1994).
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Costas, K., Knorr, R. S. and Condon, S. K., A case-control study of childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts: the relationship between leukemia incidence and exposure to public drinking water. Science of the Total Environment, 300(1-3), 23-35 (2002).
Czirjak, L., Schlammadinger, J. and Szededi, G., Systemic sclerosis and exposure to trichloroethylene. Dermatology, 186, 236 (1993).
Czirjak, L., Poes, E. and Szegedi, G., Localized scleroderma after exposure to organic solvents. Dermatology, 189, 399-401 (1994).
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Diaz, S. Y., Moran, M., Unamuno, P. and Armijo, M., Silica and trichloroethylene-induced progressive systemic sclerosis. Dermatology, 184, 98-102 (1992).
Fagliano, J., Berry, M., Bove, F. et al., Drinking water contamination and the incidence of leukemia: an ecologic study. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 1209-1212 (1990).
Fahrig, R., Madle, S. and Baumann, H., Genetic toxicology of trichloroethylene (TCE). Mutation Research, 340, 1-36 (1995).
Fan, A. M., Trichloroethylene: water contamination and health risk assessment. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicology, 101, 55-92 (1988).
Feldman, R. G., Mayer, R. M. and Taub, A., Evidence of peripheral neurotoxic effect of trichloroethylene. Neurology, 20(6), 599-606 (1970).
Ferroni, C., Selis, L., Mutti, A., Folli, D., Bergamaschi, E. and Franchini, I., Neurobehavioral and neuroendocrine effects of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene. Neurotoxicology, 13(1), 243-247 (1992).
Fessel, W. J., Systemic lupus erythematosus in the community. Archives of Internal Medicine, 134, 1027-1035 (1974).
Flindt-Hansen, H. and Isager, H., Scleroderma after occupational exposure to trichlorethylene and trichlorethane. Acta Dermato-venereologica, 67(3), 263-264 (1987).
Goldberg, S. J., Dawson, B. B., Johnson, P. and Ulreich, J. B., Cardiac teratogenesis in mammals produced by dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene. Pediatric Cardiology, 11(4), 244-245 (1990).
Graovac-Leposavic, L., Milosavljevic, Z. and Ilic, V., Liver function in workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju, 15, 93-97 (1964).
Griffin, J. M., Blossom, S. J., Jackson, S. K., Gilbert, K. M. and Pumford, N. R., Trichloroethylene accelerates an autoimmune response by Th1 T cell activation in MRL +/+ mice. Immunopharmacology, 46(2), 123-137 (2000).
Gutch, C. F., Tomhave, W. G. and Stevens, S. C., Acute renal failure due to inhalation of trichloroethylene. Annals of Internal Medicine, 63, 128-134 (1965).
Hernberg, S., Kauppinen, T., Riala, R., Korkala, M. L. and Asikainen, U., Increased risk for primary liver cancer among women exposed to solvents. Scandanavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 14(6), 356-365 (1988).
Hess, E. V. and Farhey, Y., Epidemiology, genetics, etiology, and environmental relationships of systemic lupus erythematosus. Current Opinions in Rheumatology, 6, 474-480 (1994).
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Trichloroethylene. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks of Chemicals to Humans, Volume 63, 75-158 (1995).
Isacson, P., Bean, J. A. and Splinter, R., Drinking water and cancer incidence in Iowa. III. Association of cancer with incidences of contamination. American Journal of Epidemiology, 121(6), 856-869 (1985).
Johnson, P. D., Dawson, B. V. and Goldberg, S. J., A review: trichloroethylene metabolites: potential cardiac teratogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(Suppl 4), 995-999 (1998).
Khan, M. F., Kaphalia, B. S., Prabhakar, B. S., Kanz, M. F. and Ansari, G. A. S., Trichloroethene-induced autoimmune response in female MRL +/+ mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 134, 155-160 (1995).
Kielhorn, J., Melber, C., Wahnschaffe, U., Aitio, A. and Mangelsdorf, I., Vinyl chloride: still a cause for concern. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(7), 579-588 (2000).
Kilburn, K. H. and Warshaw, R. H., Prevalence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and of fluorescent antinuclear antibodies associated with chronic exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals in well water. Environmental Research, 57, 1-9 (1992).
Kilburn, K. H. and Warshaw, R. H., Effects of neurobehavioral performance of chronic exposure to chemically contaminated well water. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 9(3), 391-404 (1993).
Kilburn, K. H. and Warshaw, R. H., Chemical-induced autoimmunity. In: Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology. Dean, et al., (eds). Raven Press, New York, Chapter 30 (1994).
Kluwe, W. M., Abdo, K. M. and Huff, J., Chronic kidney disease and organic chemical exposures: evaluations of causal relationships in humans and experimental animals. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 4, 889-901 (1984).
Knorr, R., Schendel, D., Condon, S., Disirio, M., Boyle, C. and Krueger, E., The relationship between birth defects and exposure to trichloroethylene-contaminated water in Woburn, Massachusetts. American Journal of Epidemiology, 139(11 Suppl), S38 (1994).
Kobayashi, S., Hutcheon, D. E. and Regan, J., Cardiopulmonary toxicity of tetrachloroethylene. J. Toxicology and Environmental Health, 10(1), 23-30 (1982).
Kyyronen, P., Taskinen, H., Lindbohm, M. L., Hemminki, K. and Heinonen, O., Spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among women exposed to tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 43(4), 346-351 (1989).
Lagakos, S. W., Wessen, B. J. and Zelen, M., An analysis of contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81, 583-596 (1986).
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Mandel, J. H., Kelsh, M., Mink, P. J. and Alexander, D. D., Trichloroethylene exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: supportive evidence. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65(2), 147-148 (2008).
Mandel, J. H., Kelsh, M. A., Mink, P. J., Alexander, D. D., Kalmes, R. M., Weingart, M., Yost, L. and Goodman, M., Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a meta-analysis and review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(9), 597-607 (2006).
Mandel, J. S., Renal cell cancer correlated with occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. J. Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 127(4), 265-268 (2001).
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