Experts in ToxicologyHomeHome
Home PageAbout UsContact UsToxicology SupportProduct SafetyToxicology TopicsOther ServicesDr. Richard A. Parent

Toxicology Litigation Support

Perchloroethylene, Trichlorothylene and other Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

Dr. Parent has participated in a number of cases for both plaintiff and defense involving PERC, TCE, vinyl chloride, and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater, drinking water, and in the air. When perchloroethylene is released into the environment, it is degraded to trichloroethylene and a number of other chlorinated hydrocarbons, including vinyl chloride. The latter is a known human carcinogen and has been used also as a propellant in hair sprays. Some of the other chlorinated hydrocarbons also have been implicated as carcinogens based on animal studies and have been shown to initiate autoimmune responses in man including scleroderma and other illnesses. Where appropriate, causal links to specific illnesses consistent with the exposures have been made to PERC, TCE, vinyl chloride, and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. Our database on PERC, TCE, vinyl chloride, and other hydrocarbons is extensive. Selected references are provided below.

Selected References

Abbas, R. and Fisher, J. W., A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for trichloroethylene and its metabolites, chloral hydrate, trichloroacetate, dichloroacetate, trichloroethanol and trichloroethanol glucuronide in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacol., 147, 15-30 (1997).

Abedin, Z., Cook, Jr., R. C. and Milberg, R. M., Cardiac toxicity of perchloroethylene (a dry cleaning agent). Southern Medical Journal, 73(8), 1081-1083 (1980).

Aggazzotti, G., Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E., Predieri, G., Gobba, F. M. and Cavalleri, A., Occupational and environmental exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) in dry cleaners and their family members. Archives of Environmental Health, 49(6), 487-493 (1994).

Ahlborg, Jr., G., Pregnancy outcome among women working in laundries and dry-cleaning shops using tetrachloroethylene. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 17(5), 567-575 (1990).

Alexander, D. D., Mink, P. J., Mandel, J. H. and Kelsh, M. A., A meta-analysis of occupational trichloroethylene exposure and multiple myeloma or leukaemia. Occup. Medicine, 56(7), 485-493 (2006).

Altmann, L., Bottger, A. and Wiegand, H., Neurophysiological and psychophysical measurements reveal effects of acute low-level organic solvent exposure in humans.  Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 62(7), 493-499 (1990).

Altmann, L. et al., Neurobehavioral and neuropsychological outcomes of acute repeated perchloroethylene exposure. Applied Psychol., 41(3), 269-279 (1992).

Altomonte, L., Zoli, A., Galossi, A., Mancusa, L., Mirone, L., Magnavita, N., Federico,
F. and Magaro, M., Scleroderma-like disease following occupational exposure to organic solvents. Clin. Rheumatol., 15(4), 416-417 (1996).

Annau, Z., The neurobehavioral toxicity of trichloroethylene. Neurobehav. Toxicology Teratol., 3(4), 417-424 (1981).

Anonymous, Toxicological profile for tetrachloroethylene. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health  Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta GA 30333, 111 pages, January (1990).

Anonymous. Trichloroethylene, potential human carcinogen. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health  Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for  Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, Cincinnati, Ohio  (1988).
Antilla, A., Pukkala, E., Sallmen, M., Hernberg, S. and Hemminki, K., Cancer incidence among Finnish workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 37(7), 797-806 (1995).

Aschengrau, A., Ozonoff, D., Paulu, C., Coogan, P., Vezina, R., Heeren, T. and Zhang, Y., Cancer risk and tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Massachusetts. Arch. Environ. Health, 48(5), 284-292 (1993).

Aschengrau, A., Rogers, S. and Ozonoff, D., Perchloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of breast cancer: additional results from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. Environ. Health Perspect., 111(2), 167-173 (2003).

Aschengrau, A., Weinberg, J., Rogers, S., Gallagher, L., Winter, M., Vieira, V.,
Webster, T. and Ozonoff, D., Prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of adverse birth outcomes. Environ. Health Perspect., 116(6), 814-820 (2008).

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Toxicological profile for trichloroethylene (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 335 pages, September (1997).

Axelson, O., Andersson, K., Hogstedt, C., Holmbert, B., Molina, G. and De Verdier, A., A cohort study on trichloroethylene exposure and cancer mortality. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 20(3), 194-196 (1978).

Barret, L., Faure, J. and Danel, V., Epidemiological study of cancer in a community of workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene and cutting oils. Journal of Toxicology Clinical Toxicology, 23(4-6), 438 (1985).

Bernad, P. G., Newell, S. and Spyker, D. A., Neurotoxicity and behavior abnormalities in a cohort chronically exposed to trichloroethylene. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 29, 475 (1987).

Blair, A., Stewart, P. A., Tolbert, P. E., Grauman, D., Moran, F. X., Vaught, J. an dRayner, J., Cancer and other causes of death among a cohort of dry cleaners.  British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 47, 162-168 (1990).

Bloemen, L. J. and Tomenson, J., Increased incidence of renal cell tumors in a cohort of cardboard workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Archives of Toxicology, 70(2), 129-130 (1995).

Bogen, K. T., Trichloroethylene cancer risk:  simplified calcuation of PBPK-based MCLs for cytotoxic end points. RegulatoryToxicology and Pharmacology, 25, 26-24 (1997).

Bosco, M. G., Fig-Talamanca, I. and Salerno, S., Health and reproductive status of female workers in dry cleaning shops. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 59(3), 295-301 (1987).

Bove, F., Shim, Y. and Zeitz, P., Drinking water contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(Suppl 1), 61-74 (2002).

Bove, F. J., Fulcomer, M. C., Klotz, J. B., Esmart, J., Dufficy, E. M. and Savrin, J. E., Public drinking water contamination and birth outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141(9), 850-862 (1995).

Bowler, R. M., Mergler, D., Huel, G., Harrison, R. and Cone, J., Neuropsychological impairment among former microelectronics workers. Neurotoxicology, 12(1), 87-103 (1991).

Boyer, A. S., Finch, W. T. and Runyan, R. B., Trichloroethylene inhibits development of embryonic heart valve precursors in vitro. Toxicological Sciences, 53(1), 109-117 (2000).

Braning, T. and Bolt, H. M., Renal toxicity and carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene: key results, mechanisms, and controversies. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 30(3), 253-285 (2000).

Brown, R. C., Barone, S., Makris, S. and Seigler Scott, C., Potential developmental susceptibility to tetrachloroethylene (PERC). Birth Defects Research [A], 73(5), 345 (2005).

Byers, V. S., Levin, A. S., Ozonoff, D. M. and Baldwin, R. W., Association between clinical symptoms and lymphocyte abnormalities in a population with chronic domestic exposure to industrial solvent-contaminated domestic water supply and a high incidence of leukemia.  Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, 27, 77-81 (1988).

Carter-Mayberry, J., Scott, W. A. and Goldberg, S. J., Increased birth prevalence of cardiac defects in Yuma, Arizona. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 16, 1696-1700 (1990).

Chu, K. C. and Milman, H. A., Review of experimental carcinogenesis by compounds related to vinyl chloride. Environmental Health Perspectives, 41, 211-220 (1981).

Clark, E. B., 1. Mechanisms in the pathogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations.  In:  Genetics of Cardiovascular Disease.  Pierpont, M. E. and Moller, J. H. (eds).  Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 3-11 (1986).

Cohn, A. S., Reynolds, W. E., Franklin, E. C., Kulka, J. P., Ropes, M. W., Shulman, L. E. and Wallace, S. L., Preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Bulletin on the  Rheumatic Diseases, 21(9), 643-648 (1971).

Cohn, P., Klotz, J., Bove, F., Berkowitz, M. and Fagliano, J., Drinking water contamination and the incidence of leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 102(6-7), 556-561 (1994).

Cohn, P. D., Fagliano, J. A. and Klotz, J. B., Assessing human health effects from chemical contaminants in drinking water. New Jersey Medicine, 91(10), 719-722 (1994).

Cosby, N. C. and Dukelow, W. R., Toxicology of maternally ingested trichloroethylene (TCE) on embryonal and fetal development in mice and of TCE metabolites on in vitro fertilization. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 19(2), 268-274 (1992).

Costas, K., Knorr, R. S. and Condon, S. K., A case-control study of childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts: the relationship between leukemia incidence and exposure to public drinking water. Science of the Total Environment, 300(1-3), 23-35 (2002).

Czirjak, L., Schlammadinger, J. and Szededi, G., Systemic sclerosis and exposure to trichloroethylene. Dermatology, 186, 236 (1993).

Czirjak, L., Poes, E. and Szegedi, G., Localized scleroderma after exposure to organic solvents. Dermatology, 189, 399-401 (1994).

David, N. J., Wolman, R., Milne, F. J. and van Niekerk, I., Acute renal failure due to trichloroethylene poisoning. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 46(5), 347-349 (1989).

Dawson, B. V., Johnson, P., Goldberg, S. J. and Ulreich, J., Mammalian cardiac teratogenesis of dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene. Circulation, 80(4 Suppl 2), II470 (1989).

Dawson, B. V., Johnson, P. D., Goldberg, S. J. and Ulreich, J. B., Cardiac teratogenesis of halogenated hydrocarbon-contaminated drinking water. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 21(6), 1466-1472 (1993).

Dhuner, K. G., Nordqvist, P. and Renstrom, B., Cardiac irregularities in trichloroethylene poisoning. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2, 121-135 (1957).

Diaz, S. Y., Moran, M., Unamuno, P. and Armijo, M., Silica and trichloroethylene-induced progressive systemic sclerosis. Dermatology, 184, 98-102 (1992).

Fagliano, J., Berry, M., Bove, F. et al., Drinking water contamination and the incidence of leukemia: an ecologic study. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 1209-1212 (1990).

Fahrig, R., Madle, S. and Baumann, H., Genetic toxicology of trichloroethylene (TCE). Mutation Research, 340, 1-36 (1995).

Fan, A. M., Trichloroethylene:  water contamination and health risk assessment. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicology, 101, 55-92 (1988).

Feldman, R. G., Mayer, R. M. and Taub, A., Evidence of peripheral neurotoxic effect of trichloroethylene.  Neurology, 20(6), 599-606 (1970).

Ferroni, C., Selis, L., Mutti, A., Folli, D., Bergamaschi, E. and Franchini, I., Neurobehavioral and neuroendocrine effects of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene.  Neurotoxicology, 13(1), 243-247 (1992).

Fessel, W. J., Systemic lupus erythematosus in the community. Archives of Internal Medicine, 134, 1027-1035 (1974).

Flindt-Hansen, H. and Isager, H., Scleroderma after occupational exposure to trichlorethylene and trichlorethane. Acta Dermato-venereologica, 67(3), 263-264 (1987).

Goldberg, S. J., Dawson, B. B., Johnson, P. and Ulreich, J. B., Cardiac teratogenesis in mammals produced by dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene. Pediatric Cardiology, 11(4), 244-245 (1990).

Graovac-Leposavic, L., Milosavljevic, Z. and Ilic, V., Liver function in workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju, 15, 93-97 (1964).

Griffin, J. M., Blossom, S. J., Jackson, S. K., Gilbert, K. M. and Pumford, N. R., Trichloroethylene accelerates an autoimmune response by Th1 T cell activation in MRL +/+ mice. Immunopharmacology, 46(2), 123-137 (2000).

Gutch, C. F., Tomhave, W. G. and Stevens, S. C., Acute renal failure due to inhalation of trichloroethylene. Annals of Internal Medicine, 63, 128-134 (1965).

Hernberg, S., Kauppinen, T., Riala, R., Korkala, M. L. and Asikainen, U., Increased risk for primary liver cancer among women exposed to solvents. Scandanavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 14(6), 356-365 (1988).

Hess, E. V. and Farhey, Y., Epidemiology, genetics, etiology, and environmental relationships of systemic lupus erythematosus. Current Opinions in Rheumatology, 6, 474-480 (1994).

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Trichloroethylene. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks of Chemicals to  Humans, Volume 63, 75-158 (1995).

Isacson, P., Bean, J. A. and Splinter, R., Drinking water and cancer incidence in Iowa. III. Association of cancer with incidences of contamination. American Journal of Epidemiology, 121(6), 856-869 (1985).

Johnson, P. D., Dawson, B. V. and Goldberg, S. J., A review: trichloroethylene metabolites: potential cardiac teratogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(Suppl 4), 995-999 (1998).

Khan, M. F., Kaphalia, B. S., Prabhakar, B. S., Kanz, M. F. and Ansari, G. A. S., Trichloroethene-induced autoimmune response in female MRL +/+ mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 134, 155-160 (1995).

Kielhorn, J., Melber, C., Wahnschaffe, U., Aitio, A. and Mangelsdorf, I., Vinyl chloride: still a cause for concern. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(7), 579-588 (2000).

Kilburn, K. H. and Warshaw, R. H., Prevalence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and of fluorescent antinuclear antibodies associated with chronic exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals in well water. Environmental Research, 57, 1-9 (1992).

Kilburn, K. H. and Warshaw, R. H., Effects of neurobehavioral performance of chronic exposure to chemically contaminated well water. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 9(3), 391-404 (1993).

Kilburn, K. H. and Warshaw, R. H., Chemical-induced autoimmunity. In:  Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology.  Dean, et al., (eds). Raven Press, New York, Chapter 30 (1994).

Kluwe, W. M., Abdo, K. M. and Huff, J., Chronic kidney disease and organic chemical exposures: evaluations of causal relationships in humans and experimental animals. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 4, 889-901 (1984).

Knorr, R., Schendel, D., Condon, S., Disirio, M., Boyle, C. and Krueger, E., The relationship between birth defects and exposure to trichloroethylene-contaminated water in Woburn, Massachusetts. American Journal of Epidemiology, 139(11 Suppl), S38 (1994).

Kobayashi, S., Hutcheon, D. E. and Regan, J., Cardiopulmonary toxicity of tetrachloroethylene. J. Toxicology and Environmental Health, 10(1), 23-30 (1982).

Kyyronen, P., Taskinen, H., Lindbohm, M. L., Hemminki, K. and Heinonen, O., Spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among women exposed to tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning.  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 43(4), 346-351 (1989).

Lagakos, S. W., Wessen, B. J. and Zelen, M., An analysis of contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts.  Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81, 583-596 (1986).

Leong, B. K. J., Schwetz, B. A. and Gehring, P. J., Embryo- and fetotoxicity of inhaled trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylchloroform, and methylene chloride in mice and rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 33, 136 (1975).

Lindbohm, M. L., Taskinen, H., Sallmen, M. and Hemminki, K., Spontaneous abortions among women exposed to organic solvents. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 17(4), 449-464 (1990).

Mandel, J. H., Kelsh, M., Mink, P. J. and Alexander, D. D., Trichloroethylene exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: supportive evidence. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65(2), 147-148 (2008).

Mandel, J. H., Kelsh, M. A., Mink, P. J., Alexander, D. D., Kalmes, R. M., Weingart, M., Yost, L. and Goodman, M., Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a meta-analysis and review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(9), 597-607 (2006).

Mandel, J. S., Renal cell cancer correlated with occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. J. Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 127(4), 265-268 (2001).

Marquardt, G. H., Mallach, J. F. and Wersch, S. C., Cardiovascular effects of trichloroethylene. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 52, 2-3 (1943).

McLaughlin JK . Blot WJ,, A critical review of epidemiology studies of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene and risk of renal-cell cancer. International Archives of  Occupational Environmental Health, 70(4), 222-231 (1997).

Medsger, T. A. and Masi, A. T., The epidemiology of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) among male US veterans. Journal of Chronic Disease, 31, 73-85 (1978).

Paddle, G. M., Incidence of liver cancer and trichloroethylene manufacture: joint study by industry and a cancer registry. British Medical Journal, 286, 846 (1983).

Phoon, W. H., Chan, M. O. Y., Rajan, V. S., Tan, K. J., Thirumoorthy, T. an dGoh, C. L.,  Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. Contact Dermatitis, 10(5), 270-276 (1984).

Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Hansen, J., McLaughlin, J. K., Kolstad, H., Christensen, J. M., Tarone, R. E. and Olsen, J. H., Cancer risk among workers at Danish companies using trichloroethylene: a cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158(12), 1182-1192 (2003).

Rasmussen, K., Jeppesen, H. J. and Sabroe, S., Solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 23(5), 779-792 (1993).

Reif, J. S., Burch, J. B., Nuckols, J. R., Metzger, L., Ellington, D. and Anger, W. K., Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to trichloroethylene through a municipal water supply. Environmental Research, 93(3), 248-258 (2003).

Shafer, N. and Shafer, R., Tetrachloroethylene: a cause of permanent kidney damage. Medical Trial Technique Quarterly, 28(4), 387-395 (1982).

Sonnenfeld, N., Hertz-Picciotto, I. and Kaye, W. E., Tetrachloroethylene in drinking water and birth outcomes at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(10), 902-908 (2001).

Spiegelman, D. and Wegman, D. N., Occupation-related risks for colorectal cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 75(5), 813-821 (1985).

Sverdrup, B., Do workers in the manufacturing industry run an increased risk of getting scleroderma? International  Journal of Dermatology, 23, 629 (1984).

Swaen, G. M., Increased incidence of renal cell tumours in a cohort of cardboard wokrers exposed to trichloroethylene. Archives of Toxicology, 70(2), 127-128 (1995).

Swan, S., Deane, M., Harris, J., Neutra, R., Pregnancy outcomes in relation to water contamination, 1980-1981, San Jose, CA. In:  Pregnancy Outcomes in Santa Clara County 1980-1982:  Reports of Two Epidemiological Studies.  Berkeley, CA, Epidemiological Studies Section, California Department of Health Services (1985)

Verplanke, A. J., Leummens, M. H. and Herber, R. F., Occupational exposure to tetrachloroethene and its effects on the kidneys.  Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 41(1), 11-16 (1999).

Vieira, V., Aschengrau, A. and Ozonoff, D., Impact of tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water on the risk of breast cancer: using a dose model to assess exposure in a case-control study. Environmental Health, 4(1), 1-7 (1-7).  [CTX-039484]

Walder, B. K., Solvents and scleroderma. Lancet, 2, 436-437 (1965).

Waseem, M., Ali, M., Dogra, S., Dutta, K. K. and Kaw, J. L., Toxicity of trichloroethylene following inhalation and drinking contaminated water. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 21, 441-444 (2001).

Watson, R. E., Jacobson, C. F., Williams, A. L., Howard, W. B. and DeSesso, J. M., Trichloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and congenital heart defects: a critical analysis of the literature. Reproductive Toxicology, 21(2), 117-147 (2006).

Webler, T. and Brown, H. S., Exposure to tetrachloroethylene via contaminated drinking water pipes in Massachusetts: a predictive model. Archives of Environmental Health, 48(5), 293-297 (1993).

Weiss, N. S., Cancer in relation to occupational exposure to perchloroethylene. Cancer Causes and Control, 6(3), 257-266 (1995).

Weiss, N. S., Cancer in Relation to Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53(1), 1-5 (1996).

Wilkins, J. R. and Comstock, G. W., Source of drinking water at home and site-specific cancer incidence in Washington County, Maryland. American Journal of Epidemiology, 114, 178-190 (1981).

Wilkins, J. R., Reiches, N. A. and Kruse, C. W., Organic chemical contaminants in drinking water and cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology, 110(4), 420-448 (1979).

In This Section