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Toxicology Litigation Support

Alcohol, DWI, DUI, DramShop

Alcohol, DWI, DUI, DramShop

Dr. Parent has participated in DWI cases from all perspectives. He has provided testimony on the incapacitating effects of alcohol from the plaintiff’s viewpoint, and from the perspective of the defense he has provided alternative explanations for faulty breathalyzer and blood alcohol determinations. Dr. Parent’s background in chemistry and, in particular with GC/MS analyses, provides him with a unique perspective relating to the analytical aspects of breath and blood analyses. He is a Certified Breathalyzer Technician, and on many occasions he has discovered flaws in the analytical methodologies used in both breath and blood alcohol determinations. Where appropriate, he provides retrograde calculations which can shed insight into blood alcohol levels at critical times. In some previous cases he has found alternative causes of elevated blood alcohol such as diabetes as well as alternative causes of accidents other than blood alcohol content. He has given testimony in several DramShop cases and has provided defense testimony for many driver’s accused of being intoxicated. Selected references are provided below.

Selected References

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Attwood, D. A., Williams, R. D. and Madill, H. D., Effects of moderate blood alcohol concentrations on closed-course driving performance. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41(7), 623-624 (1980).

Bendtsen, P., Hultberg, J., Carlsson, M., Jones, A. W., Monitoring ethanol exposure in a clinical setting by analysis of blood, breath, saliva, and urine. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(9), 1446-1451 (1999).

Berlin, I., Cournot, A., Zimmer, R., Pedarriosse, A. M., Manfredi, R., Molinier, P. and Puech, A. J. Evaluation and comparison of the interaction between alcohol and moclobemide or clomipramine in healthy subjects. Psychopharmacology, 100(1), 40-45 (1990).

Bogen, E., The human toxicology of alcohol. Chapter 6. In: Alcohol and Man. Emerson, H (ed). The McMillan Company, NY, NY, 126-152 (1932).

Jones, A. W. and Ppounder, D. J., Measuring blood alcohol concentration for clinical and forensic purposes. In: Drug Abuse Handbook. Karch, S. B. (ed). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 341 (1998).

Brewer, N. AND Sandow, B., Alcohol effects on driver performance under conditions of divided attention. Ergonomics, 23(3), 185-190 (1980).

Brooks, C. and Zaal, D., Effects of a reduced alcohol limit for driving. In:  Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Utzelman, H. D., Berghaus, G. and Kroj, G. (eds). TUV Rheinland, Cologne, 1277-1232 (1993).

Caplan, Y. H. and Levine, B., The analysis of ethanol in serum, blood, and urine: a comparison of the TDx REA ethanol assay with gas chromatography. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 10(2), 49-52 (1986).

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Charlebois, R. C., Corbett, M. R. and Wigmore, J. G., Comparison of ethanol concentrations in blood, serum, and blood cells for forensic application. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 20(3), 171-178 (1996).

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Dubowski, K. M. and Essary, N. A., Response of breath alcohol analyzers to acetone. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 7, 231-234 (1983).
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Fell, J. C., Fisher, D. A., Voas, R. B., Blackman, K. and Tippetts, A. S., The impact of underage drinking laws on alcohol-related fatal crashes of young drivers. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(7), 1208-1219 (2009).

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Grunbaum, J. A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S. A., Williams, B., Ross, J. G., Lowry, R. and Kolbe, L., Youth risk behavior surveillance--United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortallity Weekly Report Surveillance Summary, 51(4), 1-62 (2002).

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Hindmarch, I., Starmer, G. A., Mascord, D. J., Kerr, J. S. and Sherwood, N. The effects of alcohol on the cognitive function of males and females and on skills related to car driving. Human Psychopharmacology, 2, 105-114 (1992).

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Hingson, R., McGovern, T., Howland, J., Heeren, T., Winter, M. and Zakocs, R., Reducing alcohol-impaired driving in Massachusetts: the Saving Lives Program. American Journal of Public Health, 86(6), 791-797 (1996).

Hunt, W. A. and Witt, E. D., Behavioral effects of alcohol ingestion: implications for drug testing. Toxic Substances Journal, 13, 41-49 (1994).

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Jones, A. W. and Neri, A., Age-related differences in blood ethanol parameters and subjective feelings of intoxication in healthy men. Alcohol Alcohol, 20(1), 45-52 (1985).

Jones, A. W., Inter-individual variations in diposition and metabolism of ethanol in healthy men. Alcohol, 1, 393-396 (1984).

Jones, A. W., Interindividual variations in the disposition and metabolism of ethanol in healthy men. Alcohol, 1, 385-391 (1984).

Jones, A. W., Hahn, R. G. and Stalberg, H. P., Pharmacokinetics of ethanol in plasma and whole blood estimation of total body water by the dilution principle. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42, 445-448 (1992).

Jones, A. W., Disappearance rate of ethanol from the blood of human subjects: implications in forensic toxicology. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38(1), 104-118 (1993).

Jones, A. W., Erattum:  Disappearance rate of ethanol from the blood of human subjects: implications in forensic toxicology. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 39(2), 591 (1994).

Jones, A. W., Hahn, R. G. and Stalberg, H. P., Distribution of ethanol and water between plasma and whole blood; inter- and intra-individual variations after administration of ethanol by intravenous infusion. Scandanavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 50(7), 775-770 (1990).

Jones, A. W., Jorfeldt, L., Hjertberg, H. and Jonsson, K. A., Physiological variations in blood ethanol measurements during the post-absorptive state. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 30(5), 273-283 (1990).

Jones, A. W. and Andersson, L., Variability of the blood/breath alcohol ratio in drinking drivers. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 41(6), 916-921 (1996).

Kurt, T. L., Serum alcohol is not the same as blood alcohol concentration. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 25(3), 430-431 (1995).

Laberg, J. C. and Loberg, T., Expectancy and tolerance: a study of acute alcohol intoxication using the balanced placebo design. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50(5), 448-455 (1989).

Lacey, J. H., Jones, R. K. and Wiliszowski, C. H., Zero tolerance for youth:  Four sates’ experience. US Department of Transportation (US DOT), HS-809-053, NHTSA, Washington, DC (2000).

Lester, D., The concentration of apparent endogenous ethanol. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 23, 17-25 (1962).

Linnoila, M., Seppala, T. and Mattila, M. J., Acute effect of antipyretic analgesics, alone or in combination with alcohol, on human psychomotor skills related to driving. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1, 477-484 (1974).

Lutze, J. and Schacher, E., Zur reaktionszeit bei niedrigen blutalkoholwerten. Blutalkohol, 16, 49-58 (1979).

Markel, E., Nyakas, C., Tal, E. and Endroczi, E., Changes in avoidance behaviour following ethanol treatment in rats of different ages. Acta Physiologica Hungarica, 68(2), 175-181 (1986).

Martens, C. H., Ross, L. E. and Mundt, J. C., Young drivers' evaluation of driving impairment due to alcohol. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 23(1), 67-76 (1991).

Martin, C. S. and Moss, H. B., Measurement of acute tolerance to alcohol in human subjects. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 17(2), 211-216 (1993).

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Mirsky, I. A., Piker, P., Rosenbaum, M. and Lederer, H., Adaptation of the central nervous system to varying concentrations of alcohol in the blood. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2, 35-45 (1941).

Mongrain, S. and Standing, L., Impairment of cognition, risk-taking, and self-perception by alcohol. Perception and Motor Skills, 69, 199-210 (1989).

Moskowitz, H., Burns, M. M. and Williams, A. F., Skills performance at low blood alcohol levels. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 482-485 (1985).

Nagoshi, C. T. and Wilson, J. R., Long-term repeatability of human alcohol metabolism, sensitivity and acute tolerance. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50(2), 162-169 (1989).

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O'Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D. and Bachman, J. G., Alcohol use among adolescents. Alcohol Health and Research World, 22(2), 85-93 (1998).

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Schwar, T. G., In:  Alcohol Drugs and Road Traffic. Cooper, W. E., Schwar, T. G. and Smith, L. S. (eds). Juta & Co., Capetown, South Africa (1979).

Spear, L. P. and Varlinskaya, E. I., Adolescence. Alcohol sensitivity, tolerance, and intake. Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 17, 143-159 (2005).

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Warrington, S. J., Ankier, S. I. and Turner, P., An evaluation of possible interactions between ethanol and trazodone or amitriptyline. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 18(4), 549-557 (1984).

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Wurst, F. M., Alexson, S., Wolfersdorf, M., Bechtel, G., Forster, S., Alling, C., Aradttir, S., Jachau, K., Huber, P., Allen, J. P., Auwrter, V. and Pragst, F., Concentration of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair of alcoholics: comparison to other biological state markers and self reported-ethanol intake. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 39(1), 33-38 (2004).  [CTX-039930]

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