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Diesel Fumes

Diesel fumes consist of numerous components including respirable carbon particulates with various absorbed compounds on the surface such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, nitro and polynitro aromatics, benzene, and various gases including nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, phenols, and sulfur compounds. When inhaled, diesel fumes produce eye irritation, lung function deficits, cardiovascular symptoms, chest tightness, wheezing, exacerbation of asthma, and chronic bronchitis. Chronic inhalation has been reported to increase the risk of lung cancer in animals and man and has been implicated in cancers at other sites. Selected references from our database of 594 citations are provided below.

Selected References

Albert, R. E., Lewtas, J., Nesnow, S., Thorslund, T. W. and Anderson, E., Comparative potency method for cancer risk assessment: application to diesel particulate emissions. Risk Analysis, 3(2), 101-117 (1983).

Albert, R. E. and Chen, C., U.S. EPA diesel studies on inhalation hazards. Developments in Toxicology and Environmental Science, 13, 411-419 (1986).

Anonymous, Diesel fuels. International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Evaluation of  Carcinogenic Risks of Chemicals to Humans, Occupational Exposures in Petroleum Refining; Crude Oil and Major Petroleum Fuels, Volume 45, 219-237 (1989).

Anonymous, Publication of NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin on carcinogenic effects of diesel exhaust. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 38(5), 76-78 (1989).

Bates, D. V., Diesel exhaust and lung cancer. Epidemiology, 9(4), 474 (1998).

Bhatia, R., Lopipero, P. and Smith, A. H., Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. Epidemiology, 9(1), 84-91 (1998).

Boffetta, P., Harris, R. E. and Wynder, E. L., Case-control study on occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer risk. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 17(5), 577-591 (1990).

Boffetta, P., Harris, R. E. and Wynder, E. L., Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer risk. Experimental Pathology, 37(1-4), 32-38 (1989).

Brightwell, J., Fouillet, X., Cassano-Zoppi, A. L., Bernstein, D., Crawley, F., Duchosal, F., Gatz, R., Perczel, S. and Pfeifer, H., Tumours of the respiratory tract in rats and hamsters following chronic inhalation of engine exhaust emissions. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 9(1), 23-31 (1989).

Brueske-Hohlfeld, I., Moehner, M., Ahrens, W., Pohlabeln, H., Heinrich, J., Kreuzer, M., Joeckel, K. H. and Wichmann, H. E., Lung cancer risk in male workers occupationally exposed to diesel motor emissions in Germany. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 36(4), 405-414 (1999).

Chiaverini, L., Asthma, particulates, and diesel exhaust. Medicine and Health, Rhode Island, 85(4), 140-142 (2002).

Clark, C. R., Dutcher, J. S., Brooks, A. L.,  McClellan, R. O., Marshall, W. F. and Naman, T. M., Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 2(4), 153-157 (1982).

Cox, Jr., L. A., Does diesel exhaust cause human lung cancer? Risk Analysis, 17(6), 807-829 (1997).

Crump, K. S., Lung cancer mortality and diesel exhaust: reanalysis of a retrospective cohort study of U.S. railroad workers. Inhalation Toxicology, 11(1), 1-17 (1999).

Edling, C., Anjou, C. G., Axelson, O. and Kling, H., Mortality among personnel exposed to diesel exhaust. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 59(6), 559-565 (1987).

Emmelin, A., Nystrom, L. and Wall, S., Diesel exhaust exposure and smoking: a case-referent study of lung cancer among Swedish dock workers. Epidemiology, 4(3), 237-244 (1993).

Fraser, D., Lung cancer risk and diesel exhaust exposure. Public Health Reviews, 14(2), 139-171 (1986).

Garshick, E., Munoz, A., Schenker, M. B., Woskie, S., Smith, T. and Speizer, F. E., A retrospective cohort study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 133(4 Suppl), A264 (1986).

Garshick, E., Schenker, M. B., Smith, T. J. and Speizer, F. E., A case-control study of respiratory disease mortality and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 135(4 Pt 2), A339 (1987).

Guillemin, M. P., Health effects of diesel emissions. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 42(1), 63, 65-66 (1998).

Gustavsson, P., Plato, N., Lidstrom, E. B. and Hogstedt, C., Lung cancer and exposure to diesel exhaust among bus garage workers. Scandanavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 16(5), 348-354 (1990).

Haus, B. M., Razavi, H. and Kuschner, W. G., Occupational and environmental causes of bronchogenic carcinoma. Current Opinions in Pulmonary Medicine, 7(4), 220-225 (2001).

Hayes, R. B., Thomas, T., Silverman, D. T., Vineis, P., Blot, W. J., Mason, T. J., Pickle, L. W., Correa, P., Fontham, E. T. and Schoenberg, J. B., Lung cancer in motor exhaust-related occupations. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 16(6), 685-695 (1989).

Heinrich, U., Peters, L., Funcke, W., Pott, F., Mohr, U. and Stober, W., Investigation of toxic and carcinogenic effects of diesel exhaust in long-term inhalation exposure of rodents. Developments in Toxicology and Environmental Science, 10, 225-242 (1982).

Howe, G. R., Fraser, D., Lindsay, J., Presnal, B. and Yu, S. Z., Cancer mortality (1965-77) in relation to diesel fume and coal exposure in a cohort of retired railway workers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 70(6), 1015-1019 (1983).

Iwai, K., Yamagishi, M. and Udagawa, T., Rat lung carcinoma produced by 2 year inhalation of diesel exhaust particulates. Lung Cancer, 2, 23 (1986).

Iyer, V., Harris, R. E. and Wynder, E. L., Diesel exhaust exposure and bladder cancer risk. European Journal of Epidemiology, 6(1), 49-54 (1990).

Lewtas, J., Mutagenic activity of diesel emissions. Developments in Toxicology and Environmental Science, 10, 243-264 (1982).

Matsushita, H., Goto, S., Endo, O., Lee, J. H. and Kawai, A., Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust and related chemicals. Developments in Toxicology and Environmental Science, 13, 103-118 (1986).

Mauderly, J. L., Toxicological and epidemiological evidence for health risks from inhaled engine emissions. Environmental Health Perspectives, 102(Suppl 4), 165-171 (1994).

Mauderly, J. L., Jones, R. K., McClellan, R. O., Henderson, R. F. and Griffith, W. C., Carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust inhaled chronically by rats. Developments in Toxicology and Environmental Science, 13, 397-409 (1986).

Mcclellan, R. O., Cancer risk from diesel exhaust exposure a case study in risk assessment. American Association of Advancements in Science, Abstracts of Papers, National Meeting, 0(154), 45 (1988).

Morgan, W. K., Reger, R. B. and Tucker, D. M., Health effects of diesel emissions. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 41(6), 643-658 (1997).

Muscat, J. E. and Wynder, E. L., Diesel exhaust, diesel fumes, and laryngeal cancer. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 112(3), 437-440 (1995).

Nordenhall, C., Pourazar, J., Ledin, M. C., Levin, J. O., Sandstrom, T. and Adelroth, E., Diesel exhaust enhances airway responsiveness in asthmatic subjects. European Respiratory Journal, 17(5), 909-915 (2001).

Pandya, R. J., Solomon, G., Kinner, A. and Balmes, J. R., Diesel exhaust and asthma: hypotheses and molecular mechanisms of action. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(Suppl 1), 103-112 (2002).

Pepelko, W. E. and Peirano, W. B., Health effects of exposure to diesel engine emissions. A summary of animal studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health Effects Research Laboratories at Cincinnati, Ohio. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, 2(4), 253-305 (1983).

Riedl, M. and Diaz-Sanchez, D., Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115(2), 221-228; quiz 229 (2005).

Rosenkranz, H. S., Direct-acting mutagens in diesel exhausts: magnitude of the problem. Mutation Research, 101, 1-10 (1982).

Sagai, M. and Ichinose, T., Asthma and lung cancer by Diesel exhaust. Japanese Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 40(5), 399-413 (1994).

Schenker, M. B., Diesel exhaust:  An occupational carcinogen? Journal of Occupational Medicine, 22(1), 41-46 (1980).

Schenker, M. B., Samuels, S. J., Kado, N. Y., Hammond, S. K. and Smith, T. J., Markers of exposure to diesel exhaust in railroad workers. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 14 (1991).

Seidler, A., Heiskel, H., Bickeboller, R. and Elsner, G., Association between diesel exposure at work and prostate cancer. Scandanavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 24(6), 486-494 (1998).

Song, J. and Ye, S. H., Study on the mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 8(3), 240-245 (1995).

Sydbom, A., Blomberg, A., Parnia, S., Stenfors, N., Sandstrom, T. and Dahlen, S. E., Health effects of diesel exhaust emissions. European Respiratory Journal, 17(4), 733-746 (2001).

Ulvestad, B., Bakke, B., Melbostad, E., Fuglerud, P., Kongerud, J. and Lund, M. B., Increased risk of obstructive pulmonary disease in tunnel workers. Thorax, 55(4), 277-282 (2000).

Wei, E. T. and Shu, H. P., Nitroaromatic carcinogens in diesel soot: a review of laboratory findings. American Journal of Public Health, 73(9), 1085-1088 (1983).

Wynder, E. L. and Higgins, I. T., Exposure to diesel exhaust emissions and the risk of lung and bladder cancer. Developments in Toxicology and Environmental Science, 13, 489-501 (1986).

Zwirner-Baier, I. and Neumann, H. G., Polycyclic nitroarenes (nitro-PAHs) as biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust. Mutation Research, 441(1), 135-144 (1999).

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