Toxicology Litigation Support
Hexavalent chromium exists in many forms among which are strontium chromate, lead chromate, zinc chromate, barium chromate, and calcium chromate, all of which are considered to be known human carcinogens. Welding of stainless steel is known to produce hexavalent chromium in the resulting fumes. The major target organ for hexavalent chromium compounds is the lung. The published literature is abundant with results of epidemiology studies describing the inhalation of hexavalent chromium compounds resulting in statistically significantly elevated risks for lung cancer. Most of these studies are described in chromate workers, but other studies show elevated risks of lung cancer in pigment workers and painters exposed to hexavalent chromium pigments. Also well described in the literature are studies which report hexavalent chromium as a mutagen and animal carcinogen. Clearly, the elements necessary to prove a causal connection between hexavalent chromium and lung cancer are easily found in the peer-reviewed literature. Aside from its carcinogenicity, hexavalent chromium is an allergen described as producing allergic contact dermatitis and upper respiratory sensitization including asthma. There are over 640 references in our hexavalent chromium database. Other toxic effects may be found in the selected references below.
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Hansen, M. B., Johansen, J. D. and Menne, T., Chromium allergy: significance of both Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Contact Dermatitis, 49(4), 206-212 (2003).
Hayes, R. B., Review of occupational epidemiology of chromium chemicals and respiratory cancer. Science of the Total Environment, 71(3), 331-339 (1988).
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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Some metals and metallic compounds. Chromium and chromium compounds. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Volume 23, 205-323 (1980).
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Kano, K., Horikawa, M., Utsunomiya, T., Tati, M., Satoh, K. and Yamaguchi, S., Lung cancer mortality among a cohort of male chromate pigment workers in Japan. International Journal of Epidemiology, 22(1), 16-22 (1993).
Kaplan, I. and Zeligman, I., Occupational dermatitis of railroad workers. Archives of Dermatology, 85, 135-142 (1962).
Kim, S., Iwai, Y., Fujino, M., Furumoto, M., Sumino, K. and Miyasaki, K., Chromium-induced pulmonary cancer. Report of a case and a review of the literature. Acta Pathologica Japonica, 35(3), 643-654 (1985).
Korallus, V., Chromium compounds: occupational health, toxicological and biological monitoring aspects. Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, 12, 47-59 (1986).
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Leonard, A. and Lauwerys, R. R., Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium. Mutation Research, 76, 227-239 (1980).
Lieberman, H., Chrome ulcerations of the nose and throat. New England Journal of Medicine, 225, 132-133 (1941).
Luippold, R. S., Mundt, K. A., Dell, L. D. and Birk, T., Low-level hexavalent chromium exposure and rate of mortality among US chromate production employees. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 47(4), 381-385 (2005).
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Mancuso, T. F., Chromium as an industrial carcinogen. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 31(2), 129-139 (1997).
Moreton, J., Analysis for chromium in welding fume. The Welding Institute, 5510/43/79, 1-31 Abbington Hall, Abbington, Cambridge, May (1979).
Nishiyama, H., Yano, H., Nishiwaki, Y., Kitaya, T., Matsuyama, T., Kodama, T., Suemasu, K., Tamai, S. and Takemoto, K., Lung cancer in chromate workers--analysis of 11 cases. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 15(3), 489-497 (1985).
Norseth, T., The carcinogenicity of chromium and its salts. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 43,649-651 (1986).
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Ohsaki, Y., Abe, S., Kimura, K., Tsuneta, Y., Mikami, H. and Murao, M., Lung cancer in Japanese chromate workers. Thorax, 33, 372-374 (1978).
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Park, R. M., Bena, J. F., Stayner, L. T., Smith, R. J., Gibb, H. J. and Lees, P. S., Hexavalent chromium and lung cancer in the chromate industry: a quantitative risk assessment. Risk Analysis, 24(5), 1099-1108 (2004).
Rosenman, K. D. and Standbury, M., Risk of lung cancer among former chromium smelter workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 29(5), 491-500 (1996).
Sheffet, A., Thind, I., Miller, A. M. and Louria, D. B., Cancer mortality in a pigment plant utilizing lead and zinc chromates. Archives of Environmental Health, 37(1), 44-52 (1982).
Sjogren, B., Gustavsson, A. and Hedstrom, L., Mortality in two cohorts of welders exposed to high- and low-levels of hexavalent chromium. Scandanavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 13(3), 247-251 (1987).
Steinhoff, D., Gad, S. C., Hatfield, G. K. and Mohr, U., Carcinogenicity study with sodium dichromate in rats. Experimental Pathology, 30(3), 129-141 (1986).
Trivedi, B., Saxena, D. K., Murthy, R. C. and Chandra, S. V., Embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity of orally administered hexavalent chromium in mice. Reproductive Toxicology, 3(4), 275-278 (1989).
US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Working Group, Health effects assessment for hexavalent chromium. US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), EPA/540/1-86/019, NTIS PB86-134301, 49 pages (1984).
Uyama, T., Monden, Y., Tsuyuguchi, M., Harada, K., Kimura, S. and Taniki, T., Lung cancer in chromate workers: high-risk group for multiple lung cancer. Journal of Surgery and Oncology, 41(4), 213-218 (1989).
Waterhouse, J. A. H., Cancer among chromium platers. British Journal of Cancer, 32, 262 (1975).
Wedeen RP . Qian L,, Chromium-induced kidney disease. Environmental Health Perspectives, 92, 71-74 (1991).
Williams, C. D., Asthma related to chromium compounds. North Carolina Medical Journal, 30, 482-491 (1969).
Zugerman, C., Chromium in welding fumes. Contact Dermatitis, 8(1), 69-70 (1982).
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