Toxicology Litigation Support
Manganese is an essential element for normal body function but excess manganese in the body can disrupt neurotranmission in the brain causing a condition very similar if not identical to Parkinson's Disease. The neurotoxicity of manganese has been known since the mid 1800's as described in an elegant timeline which Dr. Parent has constructed of peer-reviewed literature publications and internal company documents. Industry chose to try to conceal the neurotoxicity of manganse in welding fumes as is described in the timeline.
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Antti-Poika, M., Hassi, J. and Pyy, L., Respiratory diseases in arc welders. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 40, 225-230 (1977).
Aschner, M., Manganese: brain transport and emerging research needs. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(Suppl 3), 429-432 (2000).
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Dobson, A. W., Erikson, K. M. and Aschner, M., Manganese neurotoxicity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1012, 115-128 (2004).
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Greiffenstein, M. F. and Lees-Haley, P. R., Neuropsychological correlates of manganese exposure: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical. and Experimental Neuropsychology., 29(2), 113-126 (2007).
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Kim, J. W., Kim, Y., Cheong, H. K. and Ito, K., Manganese induced parkinsonism: a case report. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 13(4), 437-439 (1998).
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Klos, K. J., Chandler, M., Kumar, N., Ahlskog, J. E. and Josephs, K. A., Neuropsychological profiles of manganese neurotoxicity. European Journal of Neurology, 13(10), 1139-1141 (2006).
Komaki, H., Maisawa, S., Sugai, K., Kobayashi, Y. and Hashimoto, T., Tremor and seizures associated with chronic manganese intoxication. Brain Development, 21(2), 122-124 (1999).
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Louis, E. D., Applegate, L. M., Factor-Litvak, P., Parides, M. K. and Andrews, L., Essential tremor: occupational exposures to manganese and organic solvents. Neurology, 63(11), 2162-2164 (2004).
Mergler, D. and Baldwin, M., Early manifestations of manganese neurotoxicity in humans: an update. Environ. Research, 73(1-2), 92-100 (1997).
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Normandin, L., Panisset, M. and Zayed, J., Manganese neurotoxicity: behavioral, pathological, and biochemical effects following various routes of exposure. Reviews in Environmental Health, 17(3), 189-217 (2002).
Ohtake, T., Negishi, K., Okamoto, K., Oka, M., Maesato, K., Moriya, H. and Kobayashi, S., Manganese-induced parkinsonism in a patient undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 46(4), 749-753 (2005).
Olanow, C. W., Manganese-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1012, 209-223 (2004).
Pal, P. K., Samii, A. and Calne, D. B., Manganese neurotoxicity: a review of clinical features, imaging and pathology. Neurotoxicology, 20(2-3), 227-238 (1999).
Panisset, M., Lucchini, R., Belanger, S. and Mengler, D., Permanent parkinsonism in workers formerly exposed to manganese. Movement Disorders, 11, 599-600 (1996).
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Racette, B. A., Prevalence of parkinsonism in a large cohort of welders. Movement Disorders, 19(Suppl 9), S186 (2004).
Racette, B. A., Welding-related parkinsonism.: clinical features, treatment and pathophysiology. Neurology, 57, 936-937 (2001).
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